Of the couples who come to FIVMadrid for consultation on reproductive dysfunction problems, in 40% of cases, the origin is the male. The most common problems are related to sperm count (oligospermia), motility (asthenozoospermia), morphology (teratozoospermia) or a combination of these factors.
In most cases, the origin of these alterations is unknown. The negative effects of smoking, stress, varicoceles, environmental factors, etc., all of which are potentially harmful to sperm, have been discussed, but no cause-effect relationship has been proven scientifically. Regardless of the origin and depending on the extent of the semen disorder, we will recommend one of the assisted reproduction treatments: AI, IVF or ICSI.
At FIVMadrid, in addition to a complete study of the male factor (hormonal evaluation, semen analysis, semen collection, testicular biopsies, etc.), we also provide genetic counselling, including: karyotype, Y chromosome microdeletions, CFTR gene mutations (cystic fibrosis), alteration of meiosis. It is possible to determine the degree of fragmentation in sperm (TUNEL) as well as annexin columns and the presence of aneuploidies (FISH) .
We store cryopreserved semen samples for patients who will need them later for assisted reproductive treatments (for example, samples obtained in testicular biopsies). We also store semen from males who are going to undergo therapies which may alter the semen’s fertilization capacity (chemotherapy, radiation, etc.).