Cryopreservation of male and female germinal cells for future use is known as fertility preservation.
Freezing sperm is an extremely well-established technique. Many men are fathers today because they froze sperm samples before undergoing a vasectomy, chemotherapy, etc.
In contrast, freezing ovarian tissue and eggs (vitrification) are more recent techniques. However, they have enormous potential because they offer women the possibility of preserving and postponing fertility for the future.
There are essentially two types of patients who request this procedure. Today, the largest group is made up of women who have been diagnosed with a pathology (cancer, immune disease, etc.) for which the treatment (chemotherapy, radiation) will damage the cells of the ovary (eggs) and ultimately cause ovarian failure. In this situation, vitrifying the eggs before beginning therapy is a very realistic option if the woman wants to have children in the future (by means of an IVF/ICSI treatment).
The other group is made up of women who for various reasons (social, work, etc.) decide to delay motherhood, but do not want to lose the benefits of the quality of young eggs when it comes time to fertilize them in vitro (IVF).