How do sexually transmitted diseases affect fertility?

12 July, 2021

Escrito por el equipo médico fivmadrid

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enfermedades transmisión sexual fertilidad

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are those that can affect fertility, and are acquired through risky sexual practice. Risky sexual practices are intercourse with infected people, unstable sexual or multiple partners, early initiation of sexual intercourse, etc.


Sexually transmitted diseases are closely related to early infertility (15 to 39 years), especially in women generating inflammation of the pelvic area, locating the source of infection (bacterial or fungal) in the upper part of the reproductive system, where fallopian tubes, ligaments, or uterus are located.


In women


Gonorrhea and chlamydia can cause scarring and fibrous obstruction of the tubes, preventing the oocyte from reaching the uterus.


In man


Diseases such as herpes, HIV, papilloma, among others, negatively impact the quantity and quality of sperm, as well as the alteration of pH and seminal fluid.


Other STDs that are related to infertility


  • Vaginitis
  • Trichomoniasis
  • Syphilis


The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that around 450 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases are registered each year.


It is important to carry out periodic controls in order to diagnose and treat the resulting disease in time, since currently there is a high percentage of the population that suffers from at least one or more diseases simultaneously.


Regardless of the contraceptive, the only effective method to prevent contact of the mucous membranes with fluids and rule out infection by fungi, viruses or bacteria, is the condom.


Sex education is essential, especially in young people. Currently, only  5% (estimated) use condoms.


Keep in mind that many of the fertility problems caused by sexually transmitted diseases can begin to develop during the adolescent period.

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